1. Target

We first locate extremely poor communities using publicly available data. We then send field staff door-to-door to digitally collect data on poverty and enroll recipients. We target households using criteria that vary by region—including aggregating a range of factors or looking at housing materials.

2. Audit

We use a set of independent checks to verify that recipients are eligible and did not pay bribes, such as physical back-checks, image verification, and data consistency checks. For example, we use GPS coordinates and crowdsourced labor to detect irregularities. We have experimented with using satellite imagery.

3. Transfer

We transfer recipient households roughly $1,000, or around one year's budget for a typical household. We use electronic payment systems; typically, recipients receive an SMS alert and then collect cash from a mobile money agent in their village or nearest town.

4. Monitor

We call each recipient to verify receipt of funds, flag issues, and assess our own customer service. We also staff a hotline for inbound calls and in some cases staff follow up in person.

1. Target

In Kenya, we incorporate a range of factors into our eligibility criteria, including housing, assets, vulnerable recipient status, and other criteria. In the past, we have used organic building materials and homelessness to identify poor households, and we continue to test alternative targeting methods.

2. Audit

We use a set of independent checks to verify that recipients are eligible and did not pay bribes, such as physical back-checks, image verification, and data consistency checks. For example, we use GPS coordinates and crowdsourced labor to detect irregularities. We have experimented with using satellite imagery.

3. Transfer

In Kenya, we use Safaricom's M-Pesa mobile payment system to send recipients their transfers. The recipient receives an SMS alert when the transfer is received and then can collect it in cash from any local M-Pesa agent, typically a shopkeeper in the village or nearest town.

4. Monitor

We call each recipient to verify receipt of funds, flag issues, and assess our own customer service. We also staff a hotline for inbound calls and in some cases staff follow up in person.

1. Target

In Uganda, we enroll families in homes that have thatched roofs and those who are homeless. People who live in homes with thatched roofs have been shown to be substantially poorer than their neighbors.

2. Audit

We use a set of independent checks to verify that recipients are eligible and did not pay bribes, such as physical back-checks, image verification, and data consistency checks. For example, we use GPS coordinates and crowdsourced labor to detect irregularities. We have experimented with using satellite imagery.

3. Transfer

In Uganda, we use MTN's mobile payment system to send recipients their transfers. The recipient can collect cash from an MTN agent, who organizes a “payday” at the village level each month. Community-nominated “monitors” help us oversee the payday.

4. Monitor

We call each recipient to verify receipt of funds, flag issues, and assess our own customer service. We also staff a hotline for inbound calls and in some cases staff follow up in person.